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PARTS OF SPEECH

NOUNS









TENSES















CONDITIONALS AND SUBJUNCTIVE





Noun

Nouns are Names

Noun is the word used to name a person, place, thing or an abstract idea.
We use nouns in almost all sentences we speak. Look at the following sentences.
    • George plays Basketball in the courtyard.
    • Mary's cat wants to sing a song.
    • John is waiting for a bus at the bus-stop.
    • Robin lives in New Delhi.
    • Gandhi believed in peace.
Did you notice that all the highlighted words are names? They are all nouns.




Noun gender

Noun Gender

Many nouns like teacher, student, engineer or doctor can refer to men or women. Some time back, many English nouns would change form depending on the gender -- for example a man was referred to as an actor while a woman was referred to as an actress. But, this use of gender specific nouns is very rare today. The few that are used today tend to be from the occupational category. For example: Actor, waitress, air-hostess, etc.


Noun Plurals

Singular and Plural Nouns

A lot of Nouns change form to indicate number. They do this, by adding "s" or "es".  How would we know when to add an "s" or an "es"?
Look at these rules:
  1. In most of the nouns we add an s to form a plural. This is a general rule. For example: a snake becomes many snakes, a book becomes books or a pen becomes pens. 
  2. Words ending in s, ch, x or z, will form plurals by adding es. For example: witch becomes witches, box becomes boxes, bus becomes buses, kiss becomes kisses, gas becomes gases.
  3. Nouns also have an irregular plural form. For example: Child becomes children, person becomes people, man becomes men, woman becomes women, mouse becomes mice, goose becomes geese barracks remains barracks, deer remains deer.
  4. There are nouns that keep their Latin or geek form in the plural. For example: nucleus becomes nuclei, syllabus becomes syllabi, focus becomes foci, fungus becomes fungi, criterion becomes criteria.

Possessive Noun

Possessive Nouns

Noun's possessive form  shows that a noun or a pronoun changes it's form to show that it owns or is closely related to something. Generally nouns become possessive by adding an apostrophe and an "s" in the end.

In case of a singular noun not ending in an "s". Put an apostrophe and an "s" in the end. For example:
    • The car's colour is red. 
    • That man's luggage was lost.
    • I was awoken by a girl's cry.
    • The biker's face was covered in mud.
    • The movie's story is predictable.

You can form the possessive case of a noun (singular or plural) that ends in an "s" by simple adding an apostrophe. For example:
    • The bus' seats are very comfortable.
    • I accidentally stepped on the ducks' eggs.
    • The teachers' room is downstairs.
    • I am tired of my roommates' debates.
    • Our conversation was interrupted by the dogs' barking. 



Types of nouns:

As we know that nouns are names. Names can be of different kinds and therefore why nouns are also of different kinds. 

Proper VS Common Nouns

Proper Noun is the name of a specific person, place or thing. A proper noun always starts with a capital letter. A proper noun is the opposite of a common noun. Look the the following sentences: 
    • Jonathan is my friend.
    • The Universe is vast and majestic.
    • Delhi is a great place to visit on holidays.
    • English is an interesting language to learn.
    • India was under British rule for more than two centuries.

Common Noun refers to a person, place or thing in a general way. It doesn't begin with a capital letter. A common noun is the opposite of a proper noun. Look at the following sentences:
    • A man and a woman drowned in the raging river.
    • The boys played in the park for many hours.
    • The convict was sentenced to 5 years in prison.
    • The king asked the engineer to build a bridge.
    • Some people come to my house uninvited. 
Proper VS Common Nouns




Concrete VS Abstract Nouns

Concrete Nouns name things in their material form. The things which you can perceive using any of your 5 senses i.e. smell, touch, hearing, sight or taste. A concrete noun is the opposite of an abstract noun. Look at the following sentences.

Peter left the car on the road.
The spanner fell on the floor.
The manager distributed badges among the staff.
My horse eats grass for many hours.
The singer asked the audience to be quiet.

Abstract Noun is the opposite of concrete noun. Abstract noun names things in their immaterial form. We can't perceive abstract nouns with our 5 senses. Abstract nouns name concepts, idea's and emotions. Look at the following sentences: 

Love is kind and gentle.
Your courage saved the day.
Forgiveness is the part of my religion.
    • Buy a new dress was Henry's idea.
    • The future of students attending this class is very bright.
    • Justice is a virtue which a judge should possess. 
Concrete VS Abstract Nouns




Countable VS Uncountable Nouns

Countable Nouns are the names of things we can count. A countable noun has both singular and plural forms. We can use the articles A or AN  with countable nouns. When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word like a, the, my, this with it. When a countable noun is plural we must use it alone without words like a, the, my, this. We can use words like some, many, few, any with countable nouns. Countable nouns are the opposite of uncountable nouns. 
    • We sat on the chairs at the big table.
    • A cricket team consists of 11 players.
    • A library consts of many books.
    • There are uncountable stars in the sky.
    • I have a hair in my soup.
    • She was so thirsty that she drank 5 glasses of water.

Uncountable Nouns are the names of things we can't count. Uncountable nouns don't have a plural form and are treated as singular and we use singular verbs with uncountable nouns. Indefinite articles a and an are not used with uncountable nouns. We can't say an information or a music, but we can say a piece of news, a bottle of water or a grain of rice. We can use a little or much with uncountable nouns. Uncountable nouns are the opposite of countable nouns.
    • We need oxygen and water to survive.
    • Would you like to have tea?
    • The sand on the beach looks beautiful.
    • Sandra should put some oil on her hair.
    • I want  to cook enough food for my guests.
Countable and Uncountable Nouns




Collective VS Compound Nouns

Collective Nouns name a group or a collection of people, animals, or things. Even though you could count the individual members of the group if you like but you should think of the group or the collection as a whole. You should be able to recognise collective nouns in order to correctly use subject-verb agreement. 
    • A team of champions is not always a champion team.
    • A number of suburbs make up a city.
    • A flock of birds flew overhead.
    • Please give me a pack of cigarettes. 
    • A herd of cattle is walking on the road.
    • There is a colony of ants in my garden.
    • I saw a swam of bees in the beehive.

Compound Nouns are combination of two or more words used together. Compound nouns should not be confused with collective nouns. The compound nouns can be used in many ways, they can be used together like keyboard or with an hyphen like mother-board or separately like switch board. Look at the following sentences:

The bathroom is vacant.
The teacher wrote the notes on the whiteboard.
The robber was caught by the policeman.
I went to Delhi by an aircraft.
My boyfriend is very possessive.
We had dinner at the dining-table.
There are many fishes in my fish tank.

Collective and Compound Nouns

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Nouns Exercises